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Nobel prizes

Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate

The polymath Rabindranath Tagore, a Bengali poet, dramatist, and writer from Santiniketan, now in West Bengal, India, became in 1913 the first Asian Nobel laureate. He won his Nobel Prize in Literature for notable impact his prose works and poetic thought had on English, French, and other national literatures of Europe and the Americas. He is also the writer of the national anthems of Bangladesh and India.

Other Asian writers who won Nobel Prize for literature include Yasunari Kawabata (Japan, 1968), Kenzaburō Ōe (Japan, 1994), Gao Xingjian (China, 2000), Orhan Pamuk (Turkey, 2006), and Mo Yan (China, 2012). Some may consider the American writer, Pearl S. Buck, an honorary Asian Nobel laureate, having spent considerable time in China as the daughter of missionaries, and based many of her novels, namely The Good Earth (1931) and The Mother (1933), as well as the biographies of her parents of their time in China, The Exile and Fighting Angel, all of which earned her the Literature prize in 1938.

Also, Mother Teresa of India and Shirin Ebadi of Iran were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Ebadi is the first Iranian and the first Muslim woman to receive the prize. Another Nobel Peace Prize winner is Aung San Suu Kyi from Burma for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a military dictatorship in Burma. She is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma(Myanmar) and a noted prisoner of conscience. She is a Buddhist and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. Most recently, Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China." He is the first Chinese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize of any kind while residing in China.

Sir C. V. Raman is the first Asian to get a Nobel prize in Sciences. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him".

Amartya Sen, (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society's poorest members.

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Nobel Peace Prize laureates

Other Asian Nobel Prize winners include Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Abdus Salam, Robert Aumann, Menachem Begin, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Daniel Kahneman, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Ada Yonath, Yasser Arafat, José Ramos-Horta and Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of Timor Leste, Kim Dae-jung, and 13 Japanese scientists. Most of the said awardees are from Japan and Israel except for Chandrasekhar and Raman (India), Salam (Pakistan), Arafat (Palestinian Territories) Kim (South Korea), Horta and Belo (Timor Leste).

In 2006, Dr. Muhammad Yunus of Bangladesh was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the establishment of Grameen Bank, a community development bank that lends money to poor people, especially women in Bangladesh. Dr. Yunus received his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University, United States. He is internationally known for the concept of micro credit which allows poor and destitute people with little or no collateral to borrow money. The borrowers typically pay back money within the specified period and the incidence of default is very low.

The Dalai Lama has received approximately eighty-four awards over his spiritual and political career.[69] On 22 June 2006, he became one of only four people ever to be recognized with Honorary Citizenship by the Governor General of Canada. On 28 May 2005, he received the Christmas Humphreys Award from the Buddhist Society in the United Kingdom. Most notable was the Nobel Peace Prize, presented in Oslo, Norway on 10 December 1989.

Political geography

Main article: Politics of Asia
Flag Arms Name Population
Area
(km²)
Capital
Afghanistan Emblem of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan 30,419,928 647,500 Kabul
Armenia Coat of arms of Armenia.svg Armenia 2,970,495 29,743 Yerevan
Azerbaijan Emblem of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan 9,493,600 86,600 Baku
Bahrain Emblem of Bahrain.svg Bahrain 1,248,348 760 Manama
Bangladesh National emblem of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh 150,039,000 147,570 Dhaka
Bhutan Emblem of Bhutan.svg Bhutan 716,896 38,394 Thimphu
Brunei Emblem of Brunei.svg Brunei 408,786 5,765 Bandar Seri Begawan
Burma State seal of Myanmar.svg Burma (Myanmar) 54,584,650 676,578 Naypyidaw
Cambodia Coat of arms of Cambodia.svg Cambodia 14,952,665 181,035 Phnom Penh
China National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg China (PRC) 1,343,239,923 9,596,961 Beijing
Cyprus Coat of Arms of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 1,099,341 9,251 Nicosia
East Timor Coat of arms of East Timor.svg East Timor 1,143,667 14,874 Dili
Georgia (country) Greater coat of arms of Georgia.svg Georgia 4,570,934 69,700 Tbilisi
India Emblem of India.svg India 1,210,193,422 3,287,263 New Delhi
Indonesia National emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg Indonesia 248,645,008 1,904,569 Jakarta
Iran Emblem of Iran.svg Iran 78,868,711 1,648,195 Tehran
Iraq Coat of arms (emblem) of Iraq 2008.svg Iraq 31,129,225 438,317 Baghdad
Israel Emblem of Israel.svg Israel 7,590,758 20,770 Jerusalem
Japan Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Japan 127,368,088 377,915 Tokyo
Jordan Coat of arms of Jordan.svg Jordan 6,508,887 89,342 Amman
Kazakhstan Emblem of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan 17,522,010 2,724,900 Astana
Kuwait Coat of arms of Kuwait.svg Kuwait 2,646,314 17,818 Kuwait City
Kyrgyzstan National emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan 5,496,737 199,951 Bishkek
Laos Emblem of Laos.svg Laos 6,586,266 236,800 Vientiane
Lebanon Coat of arms of Lebanon.svg Lebanon 4,140,289 10,400 Beirut
Malaysia Malaysia 29,179,952 329,847 Kuala Lumpur
Maldives Coat of arms of Maldives.svg Maldives 394,451 298 Malé
Mongolia State emblem of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 3,179,997 1,564,116 Ulaanbaatar
Nepal Coat of arms of Nepal.svg Nepal 29,890,686 147,181 Kathmandu
North Korea Emblem of North Korea.svg North Korea 24,589,122 120,538 Pyongyang
Oman National emblem of Oman.svg Oman 3,090,150 309,500 Muscat
Pakistan State emblem of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 190,291,129 796,095 Islamabad
State of Palestine Palestine COA (alternative).svg Palestine 4,279,699 6,220 Gaza/Ramallah
Philippines Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg Philippines 100,519,300 300,000 Manila
Qatar Emblem of Qatar.svg Qatar 1,951,591 11,586 Doha
Russia Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg Russia 142,517,670 17,098,242 Moscow
Saudi Arabia Coat of arms of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 26,534,504 2,149,690 Riyadh
Singapore Coat of arms of Singapore (blazon).svg Singapore 5,353,494 697 Singapore
Sri Lanka Emblem of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka 21,481,334 65,610 Colombo
South Korea Emblem of South Korea.svg South Korea 50,004,441 100,210 Seoul
Syria Coat of arms of Syria.svg Syria 22,530,746 185,180 Damascus
Taiwan Republic of China National Emblem.svg Taiwan (ROC) 23,261,747 36,193 Taipei
Tajikistan Emblem of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan 7,768,385 143,100 Dushanbe
Thailand Garuda Emblem of Thailand.svg Thailand 67,091,089 513,120 Bangkok
Turkey Türkiye arması.svg Turkey 79,749,461 783,562 Ankara
Turkmenistan Emblem of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan 5,054,828 488,100 Ashgabat
United Arab Emirates Emblem of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates 5,314,317 83,600 Abu Dhabi
Uzbekistan Coat of arms of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan 28,394,180 447,400 Tashkent
Vietnam Coat of arms of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 91,519,289 331,212 Hanoi
Yemen Emblem of Yemen.svg Yemen 24,771,809 527,968 Sana'a

See also

References to articles:

Special topics:

Lists:

References

 





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Asia
Globe centered on Asia, with Asia highlighted. The continent is shaped like a right-angle triangle, with Europe to the west, oceans to the south and east, and Oceaniato the south-east.
Area 44,579,000 km2 (17,212,000 sq mi)[1]
Population 4,164,252,000 (1st)[2]
Pop. density 87/km2 (225/sq mi)
Demonym Asian
Countries 49 (and 5 disputed) (list of countries)
Dependencies
Unrecognized regions
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC+2 to UTC+12
Internet TLD .asia
Largest cities

List of metropolitan areas in Asia by population
List of cities in Asia


Asia (Listeni/ˈʒə/ or /ˈʃə/) is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and comprises 30% of its land area. With approximately 4.427 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. Like most of the world, Asia has a high growth rate in the modern era. For instance, during the 20th century, Asia's population nearly quadrupled, as did the world population.[3]

The boundaries of Asia are culturally determined, as there is no clear geographical separation between it and Europe, which together form one continuous landmass called Eurasia. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma–Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[4][5] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia – a name dating back to classical antiquity - may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography.[6] Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems.

 

 

Definition and boundaries

Greek three-continent system

Two-point equidistant projection of Asia and surrounding landmasses.
The racial diversity of Asia's peoples, Nordisk familjebok (1904)

The border between Asia and Europe has historically been determined by Europeans[which?] only.[dubious ] The original distinction between the two was made by the ancient Greeks. They used the Aegean Sea, the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus, the Black Sea, the Kerch Strait, and the Sea of Azov as the border between Asia and Europe. The Nile was often used as the border between Asia and Africa (then called Libya), although some Greek geographers suggested the Red Sea would form a better boundary.[7] Darius' canal between the Nile and the Red Sea introduced considerable variation in opinion. Under the Roman Empire, the Don River emptying into the Black Sea was the western border of Asia. It was the northernmost navigable point of the European shore.[citation needed] In the 15th century the Red Sea became established as the boundary between Africa and Asia, replacing the Nile.[7]

Asia–Europe boundary

The Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, and armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721. The major geographical theorist of the empire was actually a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, and was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book.[citation needed]

In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg. The latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century. The border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects.[8] In the maps of the period, Transcaucasia was counted as Asian. The incorporation of most of that region into the Soviet Union tended to push views of the border to the south. Asian cultures had no say in this system of determining the imaginary boundaries separating them from Europe.[citation needed]

Asia–Oceania boundary

The border between Asia and the loosely defined region of Oceania is usually placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there (not all European). Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of 'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process."[7]

Ongoing definition












Economy

Main article: Economy of Asia
Singapore has one of the busiest ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading center.

Asia has the second largest nominal GDP of all continents, after Europe, but the largest when measured in purchasing power parity. As of 2011, the largest economies in Asia are China, Japan, India, South Korea and Indonesia.[29] Based on Global Office Locations 2011, Asia dominated the office locations with 4 of top 5 were in Asia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo, Seoul and Shanghai. Around 68 percent of international firms have office in Hong Kong.[30]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the economies of the PRC[31] and India have been growing rapidly, both with an average annual growth rate of more than 8%. Other recent very high growth nations in Asia include Israel, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh , Pakistan , Thailand, Vietnam, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Cyprus and the Philippines, and mineral-rich nations such as Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Oman.

According to economic historian Angus Maddison in his book The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, India had the world's largest economy during 0 BCE and 1000 BCE.[32][33] China was the largest and most advanced economy on earth for much of recorded history,[34][35][36][37] until the British Empire (excluding India) overtook it in the mid-19th century. For several decades in the late twentieth century Japan was the largest economy in Asia and second-largest of any single nation in the world, after surpassing the Soviet Union (measured in net material product) in 1986 and Germany in 1968. (NB: A number of supernational economies are larger, such as the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or APEC). This ended in 2010 when China overtook Japan to become the world's second largest economy.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japan's GDP was almost as large (current exchange rate method) as that of the rest of Asia combined.[citation needed] In 1995, Japan's economy nearly equaled that of the USA as the largest economy in the world for a day, after the Japanese currency reached a record high of 79 yen/US$. Economic growth in Asia since World War II to the 1990s had been concentrated in Japan as well as the four regions of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore located in the Pacific Rim, known as the Asian tigers, which have now all received developed country status, having the highest GDP per capita in Asia.[38]

Mumbai is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a crucial role in the Economy of India.

It is forecasted that India will overtake Japan in terms of nominal GDP by 2020.[39] By 2027, according to Goldman Sachs, China will have the largest economy in the world. Several trade blocs exist, with the most developed being the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Asia is the largest continent in the world by a considerable margin, and it is rich in natural resources, such as petroleum, forests, fish, water, rice, copper and silver. Manufacturing in Asia has traditionally been strongest in East and Southeast Asia, particularly in the China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, India, the Philippines, and Singapore. Japan and South Korea continue to dominate in the area of multinational corporations, but increasingly the PRC and India are making significant inroads. Many companies from Europe, North America, South Korea and Japan have operations in Asia's developing countries to take advantage of its abundant supply of cheap labour and relatively developed infrastructure.

According to Citigroup 9 of 11 Global Growth Generators countries came from Asia driven by population and income growth. They are Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.[40] Asia has four main financial centers: Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore and Shanghai. Call centers and business process outsourcing (BPOs) are becoming major employers in India and the Philippines due to the availability of a large pool of highly skilled, English-speaking workers. The increased use of outsourcing has assisted the rise of India and the China as financial centers. Due to its large and extremely competitive information technology industry, India has become a major hub for outsourcing.

In 2010, Asia had 3.3 million millionaires (people with net worth over US$1 million excluding their homes), slightly below North America with 3.4 million millionaires. Last year Asia had toppled Europe.[41] Citigroup in The Wealth Report 2012 stated that Asian centa-millionaire overtook North America's wealth for the first time as the world's "economic center of gravity" continued moving east. At the end of 2011, there were 18,000 Asian people mainly in Southeast Asia, China and Japan who have at least $100 million in disposable assets, while North America with 17,000 people and Western Europe with 14,000 people.[42]

Tourism

A Thai temple complex with several ornate buildings and a stupa, and a lot of visitors
Wat Phra Kaeo in the Grand Palace is among Bangkok's major tourist attractions.

With growing Regional Tourism with domination of Chinese visitors, MasterCard has released Global Destination Cities Index 2013 with 10 of 20 are dominated by Asia and Pacific Region Cities and also for the first time a city of a country from Asia (Bangkok) set in the top-ranked with 15.98 international visitors.[43]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Asia
Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1500 243,000,000 —    
1700 436,000,000 +79.4%
1900 947,000,000 +117.2%
1950 1,402,000,000 +48.0%
1999 3,634,000,000 +159.2%
2012 4,175,038,363 +14.9%
Source: "UN report 2004 data" (PDF).
The figure for 2012 is provided by PopulationData.net.

East Asia had by far the strongest overall Human Development Index (HDI) improvement of any region in the world, nearly doubling average HDI attainment over the past 40 years, according to the report’s analysis of health, education and income data. China, the second highest achiever in the world in terms of HDI improvement since 1970, is the only country on the "Top 10 Movers" list due to income rather than health or education achievements. Its per capita income increased a stunning 21-fold over the last four decades, also lifting hundreds of millions out of income poverty. Yet it was not among the region’s top performers in improving school enrolment and life expectancy.[44]
Nepal, a South Asian country, emerges as one of the world’s fastest movers since 1970 mainly due to health and education achievements. Its present life expectancy is 25 years longer than in the 1970s. More than four of every five children of school age in Nepal now attend primary school, compared to just one in five 40 years ago.[44]
Japan and South Korea ranked highest among the countries grouped on the HDI (number 11 and 12 in the world, which are in the "very high human development" category), followed by Hong Kong (21) and Singapore (27). Afghanistan (155) ranked lowest amongst Asian countries out of the 169 countries assessed.[44]

Languages

Main article: Languages of Asia

Asia is home to several language families and many language isolates. Most Asian countries have more than one language that is natively spoken. For instance, according to Ethnologue, more than 600 languages are spoken in Indonesia, more than 800 languages spoken in India, and more than 100 are spoken in the Philippines. China has many languages and dialects in different provinces.

Religions

Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca.

Many of the world's major religions have their origins in Asia. Asian mythology is complex and diverse. The story of the Great Flood for example, as presented to Christians in the Old Testament, is first found in Mesopotamian mythology, in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Hindu mythology tells about an Avatar of the God Vishnu in the form of a fish who warned Manu of a terrible flood. In ancient Chinese mythology, Shan Hai Jing, the Chinese ruler Da Yu, had to spend 10 years to control a deluge which swept out most of ancient China and was aided by the goddess Nüwa who literally fixed the broken sky through which huge rains were pouring.

Abrahamic

The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Bahá'í Faith originated in West Asia. Judaism, the oldest of the Abrahamic faiths, is practiced primarily in Israel, the birthplace and historical homeland of the Hebrew nation which today consists equally of those Israelites who remained in Asia/North Africa and those who returned from diaspora in Europe, North America, and other regions,[45] though sizable communities continue to live abroad.

Christianity is also present throughout Asia. In the Philippines and East Timor, Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion; it was introduced by the Spaniards and the Portuguese, respectively. In Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia and Asian Russia, Eastern Orthodoxy is the predominant religion. Various Christian denominations have adherents in portions of the Middle East, as well as China and India. Saint Thomas Christians in India trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[46]

Islam, which originated in Saudi Arabia, is the largest and most widely spread religion in Asia. With 12.7% of the world Muslim population, the country currently with the largest Muslim population in the world is Indonesia, followed by Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Iran and Turkey. Mecca, Medina and to a lesser extent Jerusalem are the holiest cities for Islam in all the world. These religious sites attract large numbers of devotees from all over the world, particularly during the Hajj and Umrah seasons. Iran is the largest Shi'a country and Pakistan has the largest Ahmadiyya population.

The Bahá'í Faith originated in Asia, in Iran (Persia), and spread from there to the Ottoman Empire, Central Asia, India, and Burma during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh. Since the middle of the 20th century, growth has particularly occurred in other Asian countries, because Bahá'í activities in many Muslim countries has been severely suppressed by authorities. Lotus Temple is a big Baha'i Temple in India.

Indian and East Asian religions

The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, according to the Guinness World Records is the World’s Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple[47]

Almost all Asian religions have philosophical character and Asian philosophical traditions cover a large spectrum of philosophical thoughts and writings. Indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy and Buddhist philosophy. They include elements of nonmaterial pursuits, whereas another school of thought from India, Cārvāka, preached the enjoyment of the material world. The religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated in India, South Asia. In East Asia, particularly in China and Japan, Confucianism, Taoism and Zen Buddhism took shape.

As of 2012, Hinduism has around 1.1 billion adherents. The faith represents around 25% of Asia's population and is the second largest religion in Asia. However, it is mostly concentrated in South Asia. Over 80% of the populations of both India and Nepal adhere to Hinduism, alongside significant communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bali, Indonesia. Many overseas Indians in countries such as Burma, Singapore and Malaysia also adhere to Hinduism.

Buddhism has a great following in mainland Southeast Asia and East Asia. Buddhism is the religion of the majority of the populations of Cambodia (96%),[48] Thailand (95%),[49] Burma (80%-89%),[50] Japan (36%–96%),[51] Bhutan (75%-84%),[52] Sri Lanka (70%),[53] Laos (60%-67%)[54] and Mongolia (53%-93%).[55] Large Buddhist populations also exist in Singapore (33%-51%),[56] Taiwan (35%–93%),[57][58][59][60] South Korea (23%-50%),[61] Malaysia (19%-21%),[62] Nepal (9%-11%),[63] Vietnam (10%–75%),[64] China (20%–50%),[65] North Korea (1.5%–14%),[66][67][68] and small communities in India and Bangladesh. In many Chinese communities, Mahayana Buddhism is easily syncretized with Taoism, thus exact religious statistics is difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated. The Communist-governed countries of China, Vietnam and North Korea are officially atheist, thus the number of Buddhists and other religious adherents may be under-reported.

Jainism is found mainly in India and in oversea Indian communities such as the United States and Malaysia. Sikhism is found in Northern India and amongst overseas Indian communities in other parts of Asia, especially Southeast Asia. Confucianism is found predominantly in Mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan and in overseas Chinese populations. Taoism is found mainly in Mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. Taoism is easily syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism for many Chinese, thus exact religious statistics is difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated.






Languages









Asian Monetary Unit is a basket of currencies proposed by the Japanese government's Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI). It is similar to the now-defunct European Currency Unit (ECU).

The Asian Monetary Unit (AMU), which has been created as the joint project of 21st century COE project of Hitotsubashi University and RIETI, is a common currency basket composed of 13 East Asian currencies, such as ASEAN 10 plus Japan, China and South Korea. These data have started to be published on the website of RIETI since September 2005. After 4 years passed, a common currency basket composed of 13 AMU currencies plus three another countries, Australia, New Zealand and India, which are strongly connected with Asian countries, is newly created as "AMU-wide". The AMU-wide, which is a common currency basket composed of wider range of currencies, will be expected to utilize as a surveillance indicator corresponding to the extensive regional economies.

The calculation methodology[clarification needed] of the AMU-wide and AMU-wide Deviation Indicators[clarification needed] are same as those of the AMU. The benchmark period is defined as:

  • the total trade balance of member countries
  • the total trade balance of the member countries (excluding Japan) with Japan,
  • the total trade balance of member countries with the rest of world

should be relatively close to zero[clarification needed].[1]

 

 

AMU baskets[edit]

The AMU is a basket composed of 13 currencies, and AMU-wide is composed of 16 currencies.[2]

AMU-wide
Country Currency
Brunei Brunei dollar
Cambodia Cambodian riel
Indonesia Indonesian rupiah
Laos Lao kip
Malaysia Malaysian ringgit
Myanmar Burmese kyat
Philippines Philippine peso
Singapore Singapore dollar
Thailand Thai baht
Vietnam Vietnamese đồng
China Chinese Yuan (Renminbi)
Japan Japanese yen
South Korea South Korean won
Australia Australian dollar
New Zealand New Zealand dollar
India Indian rupee

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]




List of cities in Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of cities in Asia by country.

See also[edit]




List of postgraduate-only institutions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The follow is a list of brick and mortar institutions that primarily offer postgraduate degrees with distinction in research publication and research.

By Category[edit]

Aerospace
Automotive
Bio-Medical
Business
Clinical Psychology
Design
Education
Energy
Engineering, Aerospace, Automotive
Environment
Healthcare
Law
Manufacturing
Materials
Mathematics
Military
Motorsport
Oceanography
Offshore
Political Science
Security and Defence
Water

By Country[edit]

BelgiumBelgium
EgyptEgypt
FranceFrance
GermanyGermany
IndiaIndia
IsraelIsrael
Netherlandsthe Netherlands
PolandPoland
SingaporeSingapore
Sri LankaSri Lanka
South KoreaSouth Korea
SwitzerlandSwitzerland
ThailandThailand
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
United StatesUnited States






Lists of universities and colleges by country

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This is a list of lists of universities and colleges by country, sorted by continent and region. The lists represent educational institutions throughout the world which provide higher education in tertiary, quaternary and post-secondary education.

By continent[edit]

Africa[edit]

Eastern Africa[edit]

Central Africa[edit]

Northern Africa[edit]

Southern Africa[edit]

Western Africa[edit]

Americas[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

Central America[edit]

North America[edit]

South America[edit]

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Asia[edit]

Southeastern Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Western Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

Northern Europe[edit]

Southern Europe[edit]

Western Europe[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Melanesia[edit]

Micronesia[edit]

By region[edit]

The Arab World[edit]

International[edit]

See also[edit]

External links





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