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A business entity is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations, cooperatives, partnerships, sole traders, limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, e.g.

public limited company (UK and Ireland)
Ltd. (UK and Ireland)
limited partnership, etc.

However, the regulations governing particular types of entity, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen.[1]







  • Inc. (Incorporated): restricted to non-profit associations
  • Ltd. (Limited): ≈ plc (UK). The suffix Ltd. may also be used by a private company limited by guarantee, such as a charity or university (these may obtain dispensation from the Registrar of Companies to operate without the suffix).
  • NL (No liability): A type of mining, speculative, or research company with no right to call up the unpaid issue price of shares.
  • Pty. Ltd. (Proprietary Limited Company): ≈ Ltd. (UK) ATF Trust. In Australia companies can act as a trustee for a trust.
  • Pty. (Unlimited Proprietary) company with a share capital: A company, similar to its limited company (Ltd., or Pty. Ltd.) counterpart, but where the liability of the members or shareholders is not limited.


  • Gen (Genossenschaft; types: Erwerbs- und Wirtschaftsgenossenschaft): ≈ cooperative
  • Privatstiftung: ≈ private foundation
  • Verein: ≈ nonprofit association
  • European business entities
  • e.U. (eingetragenes Einzelunternehmen): ≈ sole trader (UK), sole proprietorship (US)
  • Kapitalgesellschaften: ≈ companies
  • Personengesellschaften: ≈ partnerships
    • unincorporated (i.e. unregistered and without legal personality):
      • stG (stille Gesellschaft): ≈ partnership by estoppel (i.e., no partnership agreement)
      • GesbR (Gesellschaft des bürgerlichen Rechts): ≈ partnership by contract (i.e., formed by partnership agreement); statutes and regulations concerning Austrian companies, especially with regards to the companies register (Firmenbuch), do not apply.
    • incorporated (i.e. registered and with legal personality):
  • Obsolete:
    • Erwerbsgesellschaft: small-sized partnerships (not qualifying as OG or KG, respectively. Converted into OGs or KGs as of 1. 1. 2007)
      • OEG (Offene Erwerbsgesellschaft): small general partnership
      • KEG (Kommanditerwerbsgesellschaft): small limited partnership

See also help.gv.at (Austrian government site, in German)


  • ААТ (Адкрытае акцыянернае таварыства Adkritaye Aktsiyanernaye Tavaristva): ≈ plc (UK), open
  • ЗАТ (Закрытае ацыянернае таварыства Zakritaye Aktsiyanernaye Tavaristva): ≈ plc (UK), closed
  • ІП (Індывідуяльны прадпрымальнік Individuyalni Pradprimalnik): sole proprietorship
  • ПУП PUP (Прыватнае унітарнае прадпрыемства Privatnaye Unitarnaye Pradpriyemstva): private unitary enterprise
  • ТАА (Таварыства з абмежаванай адказнасцю Tavaristva z Abmezhavanaj Adkaznastsiu): ≈ Ltd. (UK)


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